For the all of them the first step is the (first) fermentation: the process which trasforms must into wine as sugars are converted into alchool.
Then, only for the production of sparkling wines a second fermentation is foreseen: the second fermentation allows to obtain carbon dioxine by adding sugar and yeast to the wine.
Essentially, the second fermentation can be conducted following 2 different methods:
- CLASSIC METHOD (or CHAMPENOISE): the second fermentation takes place in each single bottle. The process is pretty long ang delicate. It gives complexity and “mature” aromas to the wine also because it takes longer.
Some examples: the French Champagne, or the Italians Franciacorta (such as Berlucchi company) or Trento DOC (such as Ferrari company). In Italy you can find it on the label (METODO CLASSICO).
- MARTINOTTI (or CHARMAT) the re-fermentation takes place in big containers to speed up the process, keep freshness and the typical notes of this grape/wine and obtain uniformity. Only at the end the product is bottled.
The best example: the famous italian Prosecco.
As usual there is not a method better than another, it depends on the result you may obtain and also on the grape you work on!
Have you tried the both, What’s your favorite one?